UIAA MOUNTAIN CODE
Stretch your Limits, Lift your Spirits and Aim for the Top
Article 1 – Individual Responsibility
Mountaineers and climbers practice their sport in situations where
there is risk of accidents and outside help may not be available.
With this in mind, they pursue this activity at their own
responsibility and are accountable for their own safety. The
individual’s actions should not endanger those around them nor the
Article 2 – Team Spirit
Members of the team should be prepared to make compromises in order
to balance the interests and abilities of the entire group.
Article 3 – Climbing & Mountaineering Community
We owe every person we meet in the mountains or on the rocks an
equal measure of respect. Even in isolated conditions and stressful
situations, we should not forget to treat others as we want to be
Article 4 – Visiting Foreign Countries
As guests in foreign cultures, we should always conduct ourselves
politely and with restraint towards the people there – our hosts. We
will respect holy mountains and other sacred places while seeking to
benefit and assist local economies and people. Understanding of
foreign cultures is part of a complete climbing experience.
Article 5 – Responsibilities of Mountain Guides and other Leaders
Professional mountain guides, other leaders and group members should
each understand their respective roles and respect the freedoms and
rights of other groups and individuals. In order to be prepared
guides, leaders and group members should understand the demands,
hazards and risks of the objective, have the necessary skills,
experience and correct equipment, and check the weather and
Article 6 – Emergencies, Dying and Death
To be prepared for emergencies and situations involving serious
accidents and death all participants in mountain sports should
clearly understand the risks and hazards and the need to have
appropriate skills, knowledge and equipment. All participants need
to be ready to help others in the event of an emergency or accident
and also be ready to face the consequences of a tragedy.
Article 7 – Access and Conservation
We believe that freedom of access to mountains and cliffs in a
responsible manner is a fundamental right. We should always practice
our activities in an environmentally sensitive way and be proactive
in preserving nature. We respect access restrictions and regulations
agreed by climbers with nature conservation organizations and
Article 8 – Style
The quality of the experience and how we solve a problem is more
important than whether we solve it. We strive to leave no trace.
Article 9 – First Ascents
The first ascent of a route or a mountain is a creative act. It
should be done in at least as good a style as the traditions of the
region and show responsibility toward the local climbing community
and the needs of future climbers.
Article 10 – Sponsorship, Advertising and Public Relations
The cooperation between sponsors and athletes must be a professional
relationship that serves the best interests of mountain sports. It
is the responsibility of the mountain sports community in all its
aspects to educate and inform both media and public in a proactive
Article 11 – Use of Supplementary Oxygen in Mountaineering
The use of supplementary oxygen in high altitude mountaineering has
been under debate for several years. In this debate, different
aspects related to the topic can be distinguished, such as medical
and ethical aspects. These medical aspects should be of paramount
concern to all mountaineers.
Article 12 – High Altitude Guided Commercial Expeditions
Commercial operators attempting 8000m or other comparable peaks
which offer more limited facilities must recognize the limitations
of the clients whom they guide. All efforts must be made to ensure
the safety of their clients.